NOW !

EMPLOYMENT


Employment 
From Wikipedia
A construction worker is using Jackhammer, in Colombia.

Employment is usually a relationship between two parties based on an agreement between "work or exchange for work", where a party is a business for profit, non-profit organization, cooperative society or other entity known as employer and the other party is called employee. Employees work in exchange for money, depending on the type of job they work and in which they work, they are based on bell based or production based or annual salary. In some fields or sectors employees are given an acknowledgment, bonuses or stock options as recognition. . Apart from the payment of some types of jobs and employees, different types of benefits can be main. These benefits include the use of health insurance, housing, disability insurance or exercise. Employment is usually regulated by employment laws or regulations and / or legal agreements.


Employees and employers:
An employee contributes in an effort to an employer or to a person's business or enterprise as a labor and skill, and he is appointed to perform a specific job that is called a job. In a corporate context, the employee is a person who is appointed to perform certain responsibilities of a company on a regular basis in exchange for reimbursement and which he will not pay as part of an independent business.

Employer-employee relationship:
Employment and management control in an organization is at a very different level and likewise has important implications on employee and productivity, where control creates basic connections between desired results and actual process. In order to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship, the employer must balance the level of labor productivity with the limitations of reduced wages such as reduced labor productivity.
Get employees or jobs:
The main way to find job-seekers for job-seekers or job-seekers for their employer is through advertising in the magazine (classified advertising) or online, also called "job board". Employers and job seekers sometimes find each other professional appointment consultants who receive commission from employers to find, select and select suitable candidates. However, a study has found that such consultants are not reliable, especially when they fail to use employees' established policies in the election. A more traditional method is to be placed on the front of the organization by the "Need Help" sign (usually on the door or window or store counters). Verifying different candidates can be a very difficult task, but it may be a good idea to use different techniques to analyze their skills or to measure their talents in different areas. Employers and potential employees usually take additional steps to get to know each other through the job interview process.
Training and development:
Training and development usually refers to the efforts of the employer, which he hopes for the newly recruited employees to acquire the skills necessary for their work and their progress in the organization. A proper level training and development helps employees achieve satisfaction in the workplace.

Remuneration:
There are different ways of paying employees, such as bell based, based on production, yearly salary or remuneration (which is linked to other types of fees). For sales and real estate purposes, employees have to pay commissions (a percentage of their value being sold by them). In some fields and occupations (eg, executive jobs), employees can be eligible for a bonus if they can meet specific goals. Some executives and employees are given shares or share options, which is another way of paying with some additional benefits and in terms of the company's view that helps employees to be one with the company's interest.

Benefits of Employees 
Benefits of Employees There are various unpaid benefits that they receive as well as their salary alimony. These benefits include: residence (employer-paid or employer-paid), group insurance (health, dental, life-cover etc.), disability income protection, retirement benefits, daycare, paying education costs, sick leave, leave (payroll) And non-payment), social security, profit sharing, education funds, and other special benefits. In some cases, such as the benefits of employees employed in remote or isolated areas, food is included. Employee's benefits advantage improves relationships between employees and employers and reduces employees' disruptions or drop out of employment.

Organizational Justice :
Organizational justice is the perception and determination of employees about the use of employers in the context of honesty or justice. Also, any work that affects employee-employer relationships is a part of organizational justice.
Staff organization

Employees can engage in trade or labor union, which represent them in terms of work and contractual conditions and bargaining together with organization management on services.

Termination of employment
Generally, an employee or employer can terminate the work relationship at any time, often subject to a specific notice period. This is generally called will-based employment. The agreement between the two parties is related to the end-time relationship of both sides, so that during the notice period, separation wages and security measures are included. Some occupations, in particular, are professorships, bureaucrats, university professors, and some orchestras, some employees may have specific working hours, which means that their wishes can not be dismissed. An end to such kind of layoffs

মজুর

Majadalan, Syenloa, Mexico, workers are taking advantage of water purification plant rods.

The worker is a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the workers sell their labor through a formal or informal employment agreement. These transactions usually happen in a labor market where wages are determined by the market. In exchange for money, the labor-intensive labor product sold by the worker is usually the unchanging property of the employer, but except for certain fields, such as merit patent in the United States, it is usually entrusted to the original inventor. A laborer is a person whose main source of income is to sell his labor in this way.

In modern mixed economies like ECD countries, it is currently an influential medium of job delivery. Although most employment is in accordance with this structure, the work of CEO, professional staff, and professional contract workers is combined with the working class, so that "labor workers" can only be understood by the inefficient, semi-skilled or manual workers.
Wage slavery

The laborer, who has been institutionalized in today's market economic system, is criticized in many ways, especially by the mainstream socialists and revolutionary labor activists, who point it out to the dishonest word "slavery of wages". Socialists draw a parallelism of trade with labor as a commodity. It is known that Cisnero proposed the same analogy.

American philosopher John Dewey admitted that the fact that until "industrial feudalism" is replaced by "industrial democracy", politics is "the way to keep society shade by a big business". Thomas Ferguson, in his team's competition, claimed that the undemocratic character of the financial institutions under capitalism made the election a competition for the growth of the alliance and the control of the state.

Employment contract

Australia
Since 2009, employment in Australia is being operated by the Fair Work Act.
Bangladesh
The Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agency is a co-founder of approximately 1,300 members of the internationally renowned international community of cooperation and welfare of the expatriate workers who are cooperating with the Bangladesh government's associate and soccer.
Canada
In Canada's province of Ontario, the Ministry of Labor may file a formal complaint. In Quebec province, complaints can be submitted to the Labor Standards Commission.
Pakistan
Pakistan has contractual labor, minimum wage and provident fund law. In Pakistan, contractual labor must be provided with minimum wages as well as certain facilities. However, the laws have not yet been fully implemented.
India
India has to abide by contractual labor, minimum wage and provident fund act, as well as several other laws. In contract labor, in India, the minimum wage must be accompanied by a certain number of benefits. However, there must be a lot of work to implement the laws.

Philippines
In the Philippines, the private sector is regulated by the Legislative Labor Laws of the Philippines, created by the Labor and Employment Department.
United Kingdom

In the UK, the employment contract is divided by the following types of government

  • Fixed-term contract: Applies to a specific period, which is set in advance, ends when a certain task is completed or a specific event takes place.
  • Full-time or part-time contract: There is no defined length of time, the work contract can be resolved by both parties, for completing specific tasks over time.
  • Organization staff
  • Pets, consultants, contractors
  • Zero-hour deal

United States

All employees of the private industry according to the branch

United States federal income tax, source tax deduction, for purposes, 26 USCs § 3401 (c) provides a definition specific to the 24th chapter of the internal tax rule of the term "Employee":"For this chapter, the term" employee "includes the United States, its one state, or any political subdivision, or the District of Columbia, or any organization or any one or more of the forerunners or an officer representing the state, employees, or Selected Officer. The word "employee" includes an official of a corporation. "Whose In general, the "employee" remove known as the definition has not been excluded. "Similarly, Latham's instruction indicates that 26 USCs § Under Article 3401 (c), the employee not working in the category of "Employee" is not an illogical explanation of this statute. It is obvious that the term "included" refers to the enlargement of both rules, not the limitations, and excluded others from the specific entity or class. Not intended to be given.Employees are often shown to differentiate from independent contractors, especially when the debate arises with the workers' same taxes, compensation for workers, and the claim of unemployment insurance. However, in September 2009, in the case of Brown Banam J. Kaj, Incorporation, the court ruled that discrimination would be considered as an independent contractor for the purpose of law if they worked on a regular basis for the employer and the employer indicates time, place and employment practices.Unlawful truncation in the United States will be done by the United States Labor Ministry.In many industrial areas of the United States, the labor union was recognized as a representative of the workers. At present, their activities include joint bargaining with the workers in the factory for their salary and allowances and violating the provisions of the contract and represent their members in dispute with the directors. Larger unions are usually engaged in lobbying and election activities at state and national levels.Most of America's unions are affiliated to any one of two large organizations: AFL-CIO, established in 1955, Change to Win Federation, which was formed in 2005 from the AFL-CIO. Both represent legislation and policies on behalf of workers in the United States and Canada, and actively participate in politics. In particular, the AFL-CIO works on global trade.

Sweden
According to Swedish law, there are three types of employment:
Expert employment, where the employer employs employees for the maximum 6 month period of employment. Employment can be terminated at any time without showing any reason. This type of employment will be provided only once and for each employer and employee simultaneously. Generally, jobs offered after a typical job or a fixed term are offered. 
Time limited employment. Employer recruits an employee for a specified period. Normally the expiration is extended for a new period. Every employer and employee will get the maximum two years, and for the next time it is considered as a normal employment. 
Normal employment which has no expiration (without retirement and etc.). It can still be terminated for two reasons: Personal reasons, employment can be terminated immediately, only for strong reasons such as crime, or lack of work at work employment can be terminated, especially for company's low income. There is a time of 1-6 months before the end, and there is a rule of choice for employees to choose from, for example, for the shortest time the work crew was first canceled.

There is no minimum wage law in Sweden. Instead, there is a unity agreement between the employer organization and the trade union between the minimum wages and other employment status.

There is another type of employment that is very common but is not governed by law, and it is an hourly employment which is a general employment (unlimited), but is employed on uncontrolled and immediate needs during the work. Employee will be asked to answer the phone and be asked to work if needed, Ex. if someone is sick or not at work. They will be paid only for the actual working hours and in reality they will be expelled by not calling for work. This type of contract is in the public sector.

Age-related issues: Young workers
The employment rate of the young workers in the United States, eg: the proportion of workers employed against the number of workers in the economy (15-24 years) (15-24 years).


Young workers are at high risk of professional injuries and at high rates face a certain professional risk; This is usually due to their employment in high risk industries. For example, in the United States, young workers are wounded twice in the workplace compared to their senior colleagues. The same workers are at high risk of road accidents in their workplace, especially due to little experience, less use of seatbelt and driving due to overcrowding. In order to reduce this risk, some workers under the age of 17 are prohibited from transporting cars, transporting certain goods to certain areas.

Among the high-risk industries for young workers, agriculture, restaurants, waste management and mining work are included. In the United States, some of the risky declared jobs under the Fair Labor Standards Act should be employed under the age of 18.

Youth employment projects are successful only when they are provided with theoretical training in the classroom as well as education in hand.
Elderly worker
Workers older than the legally announced retirement age can continue to work, either for joy or not for the need. However, depending on the nature of the work, older workers may be transferred to the work of less physical labor. It is a good idea to work in a post-retirement age, because it gives some purpose in life and the workers can maintain social communication and taxation. Older workers are often discriminated by owners.
Poor labor

A worker, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Employment is not a viable solution to poverty reduction, the International Labor Organization thinks that nearly 40% of the workers are poor, who do not earn enough to keep their families on the poor side of $ 2 per day. For example, most extreme poor people in India are wage earners by formal employment, because their jobs are temporary and low wages and they do not get any chance to earn their wealth to reduce the risk. According to the UNRISD, labor productivity has a negative impact on the creation of increased employment: In the 1960's, due to 1% increase in labor force, the growth rate of employment decreased by 0.07%, in the first century of this century, due to increase in productivity of the same rate, Decreased by 54%. Both the need for increased job opportunities and increased labor productivity (as long as it is expressed as higher wages) to combat poverty. With the increase in productivity, due to the increase in employment, a large number of "poor workers" are born, so some experts now talk about creation of "quality" rather than "numbers" in the labor market policy. This policy highlights how high productivity has helped reduce poverty in East Asia, but its opposite effects have started to appear. For example, the growth rate of employment in Vietnam has started to decline, with the growth rate of productivity continuing. In addition, the increase in productivity does not always increase the wage, as seen in the United States, where the difference between productivity and wages has increased day by day 1980.Researchers of the Overseas Development Institute argued that there is a difference between the economic sectors to create jobs for poverty reduction. 24 instances of growth have been tested, where 18 reduced poverty. This research proves that other sectors are equally important in reducing unemployment like manufacturing sector in the same way. Growth of taxation. In the bad days of other sectors, agriculture provides employment and economic security.

Ideal for employment relations: 

Experts look at the relationship of employment in different ways. One of the main ideas is how much of the relationship between the employer and the employee in the relationship of employment must be included in the relationship between the employer and the nature of such conflict. According to economic theory, the labor market considers these conflicts in such a way that the owner and the employee enter into employment according to their respective interests. According to the theory of human resources management, both the owner and the employee have common interests (or the unity of interest, due to which the level of "Ekatmabad" is the origin). The presence of any type of conflict is seen as a bad management of human resources or interpersonal conflicts such as individual conflict or both. Can be resolved and done. From the point of view of the pluralist industrial relations, the relationship of employment can be identified as a pluralism of partners (which is why this level is the origin of "pluralism"), and the conflict of some interests is seen as intrinsic (eg: pay versus profits) with legal interests. Emphasizes conflicting contradiction between interests in different groups (eg: Marx Adi within the framework of the competition between capitalist and working class) who are part of the unequal power of the deep social conflicts. Therefore, there are four types of employment:
  • Mainstream economy: Employment is seen as a mutually beneficial transaction between the two parties on a free and fair market economy.
  • Human Resources Management: Employment is a long-term partnership between the owners and employees of common interests.
  • Pluralistic Industrial Relations: Employment is the bargaining deal between partners, which have common interests and due to the faulty labor market, whose bargaining power is concrete
  • Critical industrial relations: Employment is the relationship between unequal power in two competing groups, which are rooted in the systemic discrimination prevailing everywhere in the sociology-political-economic system, and continuing from it.
These models are important because they help understand why a person has different perspectives about human resources management, labor union, and employment regulation. For example, the principles of human resources management are determined by the market in accordance with the initial viewpoint, in the second aspect, it is an essential process that helps the interests of the employee and the employer together and thereby establishes a profitable industry, and according to the third view it is inadequate to compensate workers, and the fourth aspect Following This manipulative ideology and structure of the workplace i managerial tools that help implementation.
Academic writings
In 2013, how the growth is combined in macroeconomic, sector-related and industrial-related employment and the employment-related impact of economic growth.
Researchers found evidence that production and industrial canals have a good effect on employment. They found that the impact of GDP growth on agricultural sector is very limited, but there is a good impact on the value addition growth. The effect of the industrial sector or economic activity on the creation of employment is considered to be an important example of a major research. In summary, they found extensive evidence that the growth of these sectors has a small impact on employment. However, in the textile sector, although the evidence is very low, research indicates that there is a positive impact on employment growth. In the agribusiness and food processing sectors, they find that the impact of growth is positive.
They find that most available writings focus on some of the OECD and middle income countries, where the impact of economic growth has been shown positively on the job. Researchers did not find sufficient evidence to come to any conclusion of the impact of growth on the growth of employment among the LDCs, although some evidence indicates positive effects and indicates some evidence restrictions. They argue that in the Least Developed Countries, there is a need for complementary policies to ensure the positive impact of economic growth on employment. They have limited evidence of positive impact on employment by industry and investment, with industry and investment, and for other sectors, although there is extensive information, the exact effects are disputed.
Globalization and employment relations
The balance of economic efficiency and social equality in terms of employment relations is the ultimate issue. By meeting the needs of the employer; To create profit so that economic efficiency can be established and maintained; Maintaining a balance with the employee and creating social justice that can benefit the workers so that he / she can fund and enjoy a healthy living; Which is proven to be a continuous rotational issue in the Western society.
Globalization has created some of the most economic elements that have influenced these issues which acknowledge or deny various aspects of employment. Economist Edward Lee (1996) has studied the effect of globalization and has identified four issues that affect the relationship between employment:
    International competition from the newly industrialized nations, increase unemployment among industrialized countries and increase inequality of wages for unskilled workers. Lower wages will impose imports from industrialized countries on the manufacturing sector and lesser wages will be greater in the country than foreign direct investment (FDI) industrialized countries.
  • Due to economic liberalization, unemployment and salaried discrimination among developing countries will be created. This will happen because in the non-competitive industry the rate of closing will be higher than the rate of creation of new industries.
  • The workers will be forced to accept the bad wages and conditions, and the worldwide labor market will be "downstream". Increasingly increasing international competitions will put an emphasis on reducing the wages and work conditions of workers.
  • Globalization reduces the autonomy of the state. Capital will be increasingly mobile and the state's ability to control economic activity will be reduced.



It is also found from Lei (1996) Gibsana that 70% of the total workers in the industrialized country are employed in the service sector, the majority of which are non-transaction. As a result, the workers are more skilled and able to acquire more demanding skills, or the other to survive Find the way Ultimately, this change is due to the tendency and change in employment, an evolving workforce, and globalization, which represents more efficient and highly diversified labor force which is increasing in non-ideological forms of employment (Marquee, R. A.G. 2006).

Sub-culture
There is a tendency to not work in different sub-cultures, such as in the Hippi culture of the 1960s and 1970s (which supports wearing "drop" from society) and in Punk culture, whose members live in anarchist place (illegal habitation).

Secondary Education
Another option of work is to enroll in secondary education such as colleges, universities or professional schools. One of the main expenditures for getting a secondary post-secondary education is to avoid the opportunity to leave the wages due to not working. At some time when work is very difficult to get, especially during recession, unemployed students take secondary education after taking secondary education, because then the opportunity cost is less.

Democracy in the workplace
Democracy in the workplace is the use of all forms of democracy in the workplace (including voting system, debate, democratic structure, proper process, opposition, appeals).

Self-employment
If a person is a wholly owned business, where he gives labor, then he is called self-employment. Self-employment is often turned into an organization or organization. Incorporation provides some protection for a person's personal property. Self-employed people are the owners of the business. They can be considered as an entrepreneur.
Social Support
In some countries, people who are not working are getting some social protection (for example, welfare or food stamps) to do homework, food, repair or purchase of home appliances, children's care, and social customs where financial expenditure is required.
Voluntary
Workers who are not paid, such as volunteers, who work for hospitals or non-profit organizations or charities, are generally not considered to be employed. An exception is an internship, a job situation where workers get primary compensation as well as training or experience (and possibly college credit).
Conditional servitude and slavery
Those who work as obligations to meet debt, such as a conditioned servant, or for the property of a person or entity, work for them, such as slavery, they do not get any remuneration for their work and they are not considered as employed. Some historians believe that Older is slavery, but the mention of both is found in recorded history. Conditional subordination and slavery are not considered as compatible with human rights and democracy.